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Arduino Morse Code

by in arduino

featuredIntroduction: Arduino Morse Code
Arduino Morse Code

When I was younger I started practicing for my Ham Radio license but did not stick with this long enough to master the morse code. With this project you can convert any text to morse code. This project will show you how to create a basic circuit which converts the text to morse code and blinks LED lights while playing audio of the translated dots and dashes.

This is my first Instructables project so I hope you like it! In this project I will assume you have some very basic knowledge of electronics and uploading code to the Arduino. Check out many other great Instructables for help on this if necessary. This is a really easy project so I’m sure you will not have any issues.

Step 1: Gather the Parts

Gather the Parts

For this project use an Arduino Uno micro controller connected to a solderless breadboard.

  • 1 – Andruino
  • 1 – Solderless Breadboard
  • 3 – Resistors (220 Ohm)
  • 1 – 8-ohm Mini Speaker
  • 2 – 5mm LED Lights
  • 3 – Short Jumper Wires (1 cm)
  • 4 – Longer Jumper Wires (6 – 10 cm)
  • 1 – USB Cable

Step 2: Setup the Circuit Board

Setup the Circuit Board
IMG_8478.JPG
IMG_8481.JPG

First setup the breadboard to connect the two LEDs and one speaker as seen in the wiring diagram. Connect the small jumper from the ground to one row. On a second row connect a longer jumper cable and a resistor. The LED light or speaker will bridge these two rows. When connecting the LEDs, the positive leg (longer of the two wires coming out of the LED) should be connected to the line with the resistor and the negative leg will be on the grounded row.

Step 3: Connecting the Arduino

Connecting the Arduino

Now that you have the breadboard wired you will connect this to the Arduino. In the code we will be using output pins six and twelve for the LED lights and pin eight for the audio. Connect the two longer jumper wires with the LEDs inline to pin six and twelve on the Arduino. Connect the longer jumber wire with the speaker to pin eight. Finally, connect the GND pin to the ground bus at the top of the breadboard.

Step 4: Uploading the Code

Next connect your computer to the Arduino via the USB cable. Using the Arduino compiler upload the following code. To modify the morse code string just change the ‘stringToMorseCode’. The code will read this string and convert the string to morse code, both visual and audio.

The code reads the string to an array and then using the GetChar function this converts each character into dots and dashes. Currently this is just converting alphabetic characters but you can easily add additional characters (numbers, punctuation) in this select statement switch at the bottom of the code.

/*
Morse Code Project This code will loop through a string of characters and convert these to morse code. It will blink two LED lights and play audio on a speaker. */ //**************************************************// // Type the String to Convert to Morse Code Here // //**************************************************// char stringToMorseCode[] = “Arduino Morse Code Project”;

// Create variable to define the output pins int led12 = 12; // blink an led on output 12 int led6 = 6; // blink an led on output 6 int audio8 = 8; // output audio on pin 8 int note = 1200; // music note/pitch

/* Set the speed of your morse code Adjust the ‘dotlen’ length to speed up or slow down your morse code (all of the other lengths are based on the dotlen)

Here are the ratios code elements: Dash length = Dot length x 3 Pause between elements = Dot length (pause between dots and dashes within the character) Pause between characters = Dot length x 3 Pause between words = Dot length x 7 http://www.nu-ware.com/NuCode%20Help/index.html?m… */ int dotLen = 100; // length of the morse code ‘dot’ int dashLen = dotLen * 3; // length of the morse code ‘dash’ int elemPause = dotLen; // length of the pause between elements of a character int Spaces = dotLen * 3; // length of the spaces between characters int wordPause = dotLen * 7; // length of the pause between words

// the setup routine runs once when you press reset: void setup() { // initialize the digital pin as an output for LED lights. pinMode(led12, OUTPUT); pinMode(led6, OUTPUT); }

// Create a loop of the letters/words you want to output in morse code (defined in string at top of code) void loop() { // Loop through the string and get each character one at a time until the end is reached for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(stringToMorseCode) – 1; i++) { // Get the character in the current position char tmpChar = stringToMorseCode[i]; // Set the case to lower case tmpChar = toLowerCase(tmpChar); // Call the subroutine to get the morse code equivalent for this character GetChar(tmpChar); } // At the end of the string long pause before looping and starting again LightsOff(8000); }

// DOT void MorseDot() { digitalWrite(led12, HIGH); // turn the LED on digitalWrite(led6, HIGH); tone(audio8, note, dotLen); // start playing a tone delay(dotLen); // hold in this position }

// DASH void MorseDash() { digitalWrite(led12, HIGH); // turn the LED on digitalWrite(led6, HIGH); tone(audio8, note, dashLen); // start playing a tone delay(dashLen); // hold in this position }

// Turn Off void LightsOff(int delayTime) { digitalWrite(led12, LOW); // turn the LED off digitalWrite(led6, LOW); noTone(audio8); // stop playing a tone delay(delayTime); // hold in this position }

// *** Characters to Morse Code Conversion *** // void GetChar(char tmpChar) { // Take the passed character and use a switch case to find the morse code for that character switch (tmpChar) { case ‘a’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘b’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘c’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘d’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘e’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘f’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘g’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘h’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘i’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘j’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘k’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘l’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘m’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘n’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘o’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘p’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘q’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘r’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘s’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘t’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘u’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘v’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘w’: MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘x’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘y’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; case ‘z’: MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDash(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); MorseDot(); LightsOff(elemPause); break; default: // If a matching character was not found it will default to a blank space LightsOff(Spaces); } }

/* Unlicensed Software: This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.

Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or distribute this software, either in source code form or as a compiled binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any means.

In jurisdictions that recognize copyright laws, the author or authors of this software dedicate any and all copyright interest in the software to the public domain. We make this dedication for the benefit of the public at large and to the detriment of our heirs and successors. We intend this dedication to be an overt act of relinquishment in perpetuity of all present and future rights to this software under copyright law.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

For more information, please refer to */

Step 5: Testing the Project

Testing the Project

Now the fun part, test it out! The code will play through the morse code string and then pause for several seconds before looping again. Play around with code and circuit layout. Try adding a few extra lights in parallel with each other. Also play around with the code by changing the “dotLen” variable to adjust the length of the dots and dashes (speeds up/slows down the morse code). Change the “note” variable to adjust the audio pitch.

Let me know how this works for you and if you have any improvements!

Chris Weatherford

Morse Code Player Code (Revised By Curt Rowlett)

/*
  Morse Code Project
  This code will loop through a string of characters and convert these to morse code.
  It will blink two LED lights and play audio on a speaker.
 */
//**************************************************//
//   Type your message to convert to Morse code below  //
//**************************************************//
char stringToMorseCode[] = “INSERT YOUR MORSE CODE TEXT HERE”;
// Create variable to define the output pins
int led12 = 12;      // blink an led on output 12
int led6 = 6;        // blink an led on output 6
int audio8 = 8;      // output audio on pin 8
int note = 1200;      // music note/pitch
/*
  Set the speed of your morse code
  Adjust the ‘dotlen’ length to speed up or slow down your morse code
    (all of the other lengths are based on the dotlen)
  Here are the ratios code elements:
    Dash length = Dot length x 3
    Pause between elements = Dot length
      (pause between dots and dashes within the character)
    Pause between characters = Dot length x 3
    Pause between words = Dot length x 7
*/
int dotLen = 100;     // length of the morse code ‘dot’
int dashLen = dotLen * 3;    // length of the morse code ‘dash’
int elemPause = dotLen;  // length of the pause between elements of a character
int Spaces = dotLen * 3;     // length of the spaces between characters
int wordPause = dotLen * 7;  // length of the pause between words
// the setup routine runs once when you press reset:
void setup() {
  // initialize the digital pin as an output for LED lights.
  pinMode(led12, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(led6, OUTPUT);
}
// Create a loop of the letters/words you want to output in morse code (defined in string at top of code)
void loop()
{
  // Loop through the string and get each character one at a time until the end is reached
  for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(stringToMorseCode) – 1; i++)
  {
    // Get the character in the current position
  char tmpChar = stringToMorseCode[i];
  // Set the case to lower case
  tmpChar = toLowerCase(tmpChar);
  // Call the subroutine to get the morse code equivalent for this character
  GetChar(tmpChar);
  }
  // At the end of the string long pause before looping and starting again
  LightsOff(8000);
}
// DOT
void MorseDot()
{
  digitalWrite(led12, HIGH);    // turn the LED on
  digitalWrite(led6, HIGH);
  tone(audio8, note, dotLen); // start playing a tone
  delay(dotLen);              // hold in this position
}
// DASH
void MorseDash()
{
  digitalWrite(led12, HIGH);    // turn the LED on
  digitalWrite(led6, HIGH);
  tone(audio8, note, dashLen);  // start playing a tone
  delay(dashLen);               // hold in this position
}
// Turn Off
void LightsOff(int delayTime)
{
  digitalWrite(led12, LOW);     // turn the LED off
  digitalWrite(led6, LOW);
  noTone(audio8);             // stop playing a tone
  delay(delayTime);             // hold in this position
}
// *** Characters to Morse Code Conversion *** //
void GetChar(char tmpChar)
{
  // Take the passed character and use a switch case to find the morse code for that character
  switch (tmpChar) {
    case ‘a’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘b’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘c’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘d’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘e’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘f’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘g’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘h’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘i’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘j’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
      case ‘k’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘l’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
      case ‘m’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘n’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘o’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘p’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘q’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘r’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘s’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘t’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘u’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘v’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘w’:
      MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘x’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘y’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘z’:
      MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘0’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘1’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘2’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘3’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘4’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘5’:
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘6’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘7’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘8’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    case ‘9’:
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDash();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    MorseDot();
    LightsOff(elemPause);
    break;
    default:
    // If a matching character was not found it will default to a blank space
    LightsOff(Spaces);
  }
}

 

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Author: Kids Talk Radio

Bob Barboza is an educator, STEM journalist, software designer and founder of The Occupy Mars Learning Adventures and the Barboza Design and Space Centers. He leads a team of scientists, engineers and STEAM++ educators. They are training students to become Jr. astronauts, scientists and engineers. His team provides internships and workshops in STEAM++ and the integration of Common Core State Standards and Next Generations Science Standards. Contact information: Bob.Barboza@Gmail.com

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